As the standoff in Texas over new voting laws drags on, Republicans have turned to a drastic option to end the stalemate: using law enforcement to find and retrieve more than 50 Democratic legislators who refuse to return to the state Capitol.
It is a last-ditch recourse with little modern precedent in Texas, and so far at least, it has not worked. Republicans on Friday were again denied a legislative quorum to conduct business for a 33rd consecutive day since Democrats fled the state for Washington, D.C., in July.
Here is a closer look at the holdout and what the involvement of law enforcement means:
Who Is Looking For Democrats?
U.S. & World
Both members of the Texas Department of Public Safety and sergeants-at-arms from the state House of Representatives are going to the homes of absent Democrats with civil arrest warrants, said Enrique Marquez, a spokesman for House Speaker Dade Phelan.
It marks the first time law enforcement has been involved in trying to compel Democrats back to the Capitol since their protest over a GOP elections bill started in May with a late-night walkout. At that time, Republicans made no attempt to retrieve Democrats since it happened less than two hours before a deadline to pass the measure.
Weeks later, when Democrats took off for Washington, Republicans authorized the option of using law enforcement to find them -- but were not able to use it, since state troopers have no jurisdiction beyond Texas. Now, however, several Democrats have acknowledged they're back home. But they are still staying away from the Capitol in order to continue denying Republicans a working quorum of 100 present lawmakers needed to pass legislation.
How Many Democrats Need to Return?
Not many. Some Democrats are not part of the holdout, and earlier this week 96 representatives were on the floor -- leaving the GOP just a few members shy of a quorum.
Can They Be Arrested?
Democrats' refusal to show up is a civil and not a criminal matter, meaning the warrants signed by the House speaker would not send lawmakers to jail. The goal is to only get them back to the Capitol.
Republicans have compared the civil warrants to going after a juror who didn't show up to court. State Rep. Jim Murphy, chairman of the House GOP Caucus, said he is not hoping that Democrats would be detained. "I'm hoping they'll come in on their own volition," he said.
But it is not clear what lengths troopers would go upon locating an absent Democrat. Neither a spokesperson for DPS or Phelan's office immediately responded to questions about whether restraints might be used.
Criminal justice experts and peace officers described restraining a person on a civil matter as an atypical occurrence, such as when a threat to the officer or public safety emerges during the encounter.
"It depends on the officer and depends on the agency," said Travis County Constable Carlos Lopez, whose office serves warrants but is not involved in tracking down the lawmakers.
Democrat Vikki Goodwin, one of the state legislators who is refusing to return to the Capitol, said a neighbor told her law enforcement showed up to her home when she was not there. She said attorneys have advised Democrats that if they're inside their house they simply don't have to answer their door, and if they're approached on the street, to state they're not willing to go with them and that they want to contact their attorney.
"I don't really want to be confronted with that instance," Goodwin said. "I'm just staying low."
Democrat state Rep. Celia Israel, who is back in Texas and still holding out, brushed off the threat of the warrant.
"This is a bunch of horse hockey," she said. "This is all theater."
What Happens If Democrats Keep Staying Away?
The latest special session -- Republicans' third try at passing the elections bill -- runs through the first week of September. After that, Republican Gov. Greg Abbott would have to call another 30-day session, which he has promised to do until the legislation reaches his desk.
Acacia Coronado is a corps member for the Associated Press/Report for America Statehouse News Initiative. Report for America is a nonprofit national service program that places journalists in local newsrooms to report on undercovered issues.